Once chrooted, Apache cannot access anything located above ChrootDir. For that reason restarting Apache with 'apachectl reload', 'apachectl graceful' or 'kill -HUP apache_pid' will not work as expected. Apache will not be able to read its config file, open logs or load modules (unless you put them inside the jail, but mod_chroot is all about not doing that!). Use 'apachectl stop' followed by 'apachectl start' to restart mod_chroot-enabled Apache.
libresolv uses /etc/resolv.conf to find your DNS server. If this file doesn't exist, libresolv uses 127.0.0.1:53 as the DNS server. You can run a small caching server listening on 127.0.0.1 (which may be a good idea anyway), or use your operating system's firewall to transparently redirect queries to 127.0.0.1:53 to your real DNS server. Note that this is only necessary if you do DNS lookups - probably this can be avoided?
Please also read the libraries section below.
If your mySQL/PostgreSQL accepts connections on a Unix socket which is outside of your chroot jail, reconfigure it to listen on a loopback address (127.0.0.1).
PHP mail() function
Under Unix, PHP requires a sendmail binary to send mail. Putting this file inside your jail may not be sufficient: you would probably need to move your mail queue as well. You have three options here:
- install a SMTP-only sendmail clone like sSMTP or nbsmtp. You can then put a single binary inside your jail, and deliver mail via a smarthost.
- don't use mail(). Use a class/function that knows how to send directly via SMTP (like Pear's Mail)
- convince PHP developers to make SMTP support a configurable option under Unix, or write a patch yourself - remember to submit it to mod_chroot mailing list for others to use.
/dev/random et consortes
Some libraries might try to open /dev/random, /dev/urandom or a similar file. One important example is OpenSSL, and anything that links to it. You have two options here:
- recreate /dev/random inside your chroot jail
- use an external PRNG, like egd or PRNGD
Shared libraries are libraries which are linked to a program at run-time. Nowadays, most programs require some shared libraries to run - libc.so is most common. You can see a list of shared libraries a program requires by running ldd /path/to/program. Loading of these libraries is done automagically by ld.so at startup. mod_chroot doesn't interfere with this mechanism.
A program may also explicitly load a shared library by calling dlopen() and dlsym(). This might cause troubles in a chrooted environment - after a process is chrooted, libraries (usually stored in /lib) might be no longer accessible. This doesn't happen very often, but if it does - there is a solution: you can preload these libraries before chrooting. Apache has a handy directive for that: LoadFile. This is what people reported on the mailing list:
- DNS lookups - GNU libc tries to load libnss_dns.so.2 when a first DNS
lookup is done. Solution:
- Apache 2.0 with mpm_worker on Linux 2.6 - GNU libc tries to load
libgcc_s.so.1 when pthread_cancel is called. Solution:
Did you have other problems with Apache+mod_chroot? Please send your experiences to the mailing list, I'll publish them here.« back to INDEX